The volcano Pavlof from Alaska has offered on May 18, 2013, some great images to the astronauts of the board of International Space Station (ISS), which managed to take photos when the volcano erupted. The perspective from ISS managed to catch the astonishing tridimensional structure of the ash cloud, which can be rarely observed by the satellites with sensors for remote sensing, according to the American Space Agency.
Located in the Aleutian Arch, about 1,000 kilometers S-W of Anchorage, the volcano Pavlov started to erupt on May 13, 2013. The volcano blew up lava and a ash column which arose to a height of 6,000 meters.
According to the terrestrial observer of NASA (Earth Observatory), the ash cloud extended to S-E, over the North Pacific.
Pavlof Volcano is one of the most active volcanos in Alaska, and his last eruption was in 2007. According to the Volcanic Observer from Alaska, Pavlof volcano erupted more than 20 times between 1901 and 2007.
Romanian Government has announced that the funds from the state budget intended for the municipalities to bound the apartment blocks with seismic risk, will be cut in half in the next three years, even if the experts warned that the buildings could collapse in case of an earthquake.
In five years, the money appropriated from the state budget for this case, has a few fluctuations from RON 7.8 million in 2008 and RON 5.8 million in 2010, to RON 8.1 million in 2012. This year it is estimated that will be spent RON 10 million to bind the apartment blocks.
The announcement reveals the fact that for the next three years the amount from the state budget will be cut in half to RON 4 million for 2014, RON 4.5 million in 2015 and RON 5 million for 2016.
Experts warned several times that many blocks, especially in Bucharest, are in great danger in case of a strong earthquake. According to the official lists with buildings of high risk, there are 112 included in class I of seismic risk, which are endangering the public. These buildings were built between 1900 and 1950 and other 260 buildings of which 60 were built in 1824-1898, are presenting high risk to collapse in case of an earthquake. From this list only 30 were bound in 1990.
In an official document written back in 2006, technical experts have warned the Government that the work to reduce the seismic risk of the existing buildings should be considered as being national interest because a potential earthquake like the one in 1977 or 1940 could produce high losses because of damage over time and could increase the number of buildings affected by earthquakes.
That document indicates that the list of buildings to be bound are listed about 3,000 buildings, of which 600 are classified as Class I seismic risk and the vulnerable buildings are located mainly in Bucharest, in the counties under the influence of seismic area from Vrancea, Banat and Fagaras.
At the end of 2011, a study presented by the Pool of Insurance Against Natural Disasters (PAID) warned that the losses resulting from an earthquake similar with the one in March 1977 could cause to the residential sector would reach EUR 4.8 billion, given that the total value of housing nationwide is estimated at EUR 105.6 billion.
The earthquake from March 4, 1977 had a magnitude of 7.2 on the Richter scale and caused losses of over USD two billion, meaning 5 % of GDP from that year, according to the World Bank data.
Of the total losses, 50% were apartments, in Bucharest 90% being victims and 70% losses. The quake caused the death of a number of 1,570 people to which were added 11,300 injured because of a collapse of 28 tall buildings.
Graphic art exhibition, which took place at the Romanian Banking Institute, on May 15, 2013, was a great success for Romanian Ștefan Marcu, a self-taught visual artist from Bucharest.
The graphic art exhibition was made to celebrate 22 years of Special Unit of Gendarmerie 76 from Bucharest, where he also works. The art works are illustrating special activities of the Unit 76 in terms of hardness, high efficiency and reliability in humanitarian missions such as natural disasters or civil causes.
The main art works were two traditional portraits of Eugeniu Carada (1836-1910), Romanian political economist and writer, an upstanding person who founded the economy and Romanian media but also founded the National Bank of Romania (BNR) and Mugur Isărescu, current governor of BNR. The exhibition had a special guest, Ilie Roșianu, art critic who had nothing but great words for the artist Marcu Ștefan, highlighting his huge interest for learning and the great effort and time that he put in the art works.
At the exhibition, the guests had the possibility to choose one or more art works and make an offer. All the money raised were donated to an institute for children with disabilities from Bucharest.
Ștefan Marcu is a self-taught visual artist, born in the North Romania, which has been creating since he was five, starting forming different shapes out of any easy material he could get. During his life, he continued to develop his art skills and reached to a new level of art with drawing, sculpture, photo manipulation, graphics, painting, cartoons and digital art.
He studied at the military school in Drăgășani, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences at Nicolae Titulescu Univeristy, and currently he is studying for Master in Speech Therapy in the Process of Communication, at the University of Bucharest. For more information or art work, visit his Facebook page here .
Brașov, the city at the foot of Tâmpa, with a great history to tell, is celebrating on Easter, and “Junii Brașovului”, a group of young fellows on horses from “Șcheii Brașovului”, dressed in traditional costumes, will cross the city as a parade, following a traditional custom that is 300 years old.
Many people know Transylvania for its beautiful surroundings and for the history and customs that make Romania such a rich country. Brasov is one if the cities that every year respects its customs and gather tens of thousands of people to see the beauty of the parade, which it is a ritual that takes part every first Sunday after Easter, also called “Sunday of Toma”.
The parade starts from the Prund Square, where “Junii Brașovului” are gathering and ride down on the streets to Sfatului Square, the old center of Brasov. On the road they stop at the Trinity of Captain Ilie Birt, where they sing “Hristos a Înviat” (Jesus arised!), then to “Poarta Șchei” (Șchei Gate) on the street Podul Crețului and from here to “Pietrele lui Solomon” (Solomon’s Stones). Once they arrive, they spread on the two plateaus, at the big tables arranged by the eldest, where they start to celebrate.
The documents show that in 1931 there were seven organizations of the Juni, the oldest one being of the “Junilor Tineri” (Young Juni). The last group established is the one in 1924, Junilor Brașovecheni, formed from married men. The custom of Juni is considered one of the initiation rituals among young men, being included in the cycle of the groups. The meaning of “june” is “unmarried young fellow”.
Today, the young “Juni” have about 30 members. Their flag has a face image of “Saguna High School” and the face of a “june” on horseback on the other part. The old “Junii” (1834) come from the young june group, who were married in the meantime. Every year, on Pentecost, they organize youth “The ancestral game from Variște.” The turkeys Juni (1879) have the flag image of Michael the Brave (Mircea cel Bătrân) and the rider “june”. They wear black hat with “țoc” and turkey feathers. Junii Dorobanți(1924) are a group separated from those of turkeys. They wear a grey hat. Junii Roşiori (1908) has about 80 members. They have the same flag as a the turkey “juni”, but wearing caps with red pompon . The whitish Junii (1869) wearing white hats and the Junii Braşovecheni (1922) are wearing black hats high-pitched.
Brașov, orașul cu o istorie mare de la poalele Tâmpei, sărbătorește de Paște, și “Junii Brașovului”, un grup de băieți tineri pe cai de la “Șcheii Brașovului”, îmbrăcați în costume tradiționale, vor traversa orașul ca o paradă, urmând un obicei tradițional, care este vechi de 300 de ani.
Mulți oameni știu Transilvania pentru împrejurimile sale frumoase și pentru istoria și obiceiurile care fac din România o țară bogată. Brasov este unul din orașele care în fiecare an respectă obiceiurile sale și aduna zeci de mii de oameni pentru a vedea parada traditionala, care este un ritual organizat in prima duminică după Paști, numită “Duminica Tomii”.
Parada pornește de la Piața Prund, unde “Junii Brașovului” se adună și calaresc pe străzi pana la Piata Sfatului, centrul vechi al Brasovului. Pe drum se opresc la Sfânta Treime a căpitanului Ilie Birt, unde se cântă “Hristos a Inviat” ,apoi la “Poarta Șchei”, pe strada Podul Crețului și de aici la “Pietri “(Pietrele lui Solomon). Odată ajunși, se răspândesc pe două platouri, la mesele mari organizate de către cel mai în vârstă, unde încep toti să sărbătorească.
Documentele arată că în 1931 existau șapte organizații ale Junilor, cea mai veche fiind cea a “Junilor Tineri”. Ultimul grup stabilit este cel din 1924, Junilor Brașovecheni, format din bărbați căsătoriți. Obiceiul de Juni este considerat unul dintre ritualurile de inițiere în rândul bărbaților tineri, fiind inclus în ciclul de “cete”.
Junii tineri numără astăzi circa 30 de membri. Steagul acestora are pe o faţă imaginea Liceului Şaguna, iar pe cealaltă un june călare. Ei poartă pălării cu tricolor. Junii bătrâni (1834) provin din grupul junilor tineri, care s-au căsătorit între timp. În fiecare an, de Rusalii, ei organizează pentru tineri „Jocul strămoşesc din Varişte“. Junii curcani (1879) au pe drapel chipul lui Mihai Viteazul şi junele călăreţ. Ei poartă căciulă neagră cu „ţoc“ şi pene de curcan. Junii Dorobanţi (1924) sunt un grup desprins din cel al curcanilor. Ei poartă o căciulă brumărie. Junii Roşiori (1908) numără aproximativ 80 de membri. Au acelaşi steag ca Junii Curcani, dar poartă chipiu cu pompon roşu. Junii Albiori (1869) poartă căciuli albe, iar Junii Braşovecheni (1922) poartă căciuli negre cu ţugui.
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